"A pre-designed scenario is being implemented", Russian Ambassador Anatoly Antonov said on Twitter.
The UN Security Council was to meet again on Friday, at Russia's request, to try to defuse the standoff, as US President Donald Trump appeared to back away from imminent action, days after warning Russian Federation to "get ready" for missile strikes.
"We warned that such actions will not be left without consequences".
As fears of a Russia-West military confrontation mounted, French President Emmanuel Macron expressed his "deep concerns" over the situation in Syria in a phone call with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
A day before a team from the worldwide chemical weapons watchdog was to arrive in Douma, just east of Damascus, Russian defence ministry spokesman Major General Igor Konashenkov said images of victims of the purported attack were fakes staged with "Britain's direct involvement", without providing evidence.
Russian Federation has repeatedly accused rebels of staging or spreading rumours of chemical attacks, but the involvement of Britain is a new claim.
Later, a White House briefing on a call between Trump and May said that they "continued their discussion of the need for a joint response to Syria's use of chemical weapons".
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The U.S., Britain and France say they launched airstrikes against Syrian chemical sites after obtaining "proof" that poisonous gas was used last weekend in Douma.
Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said earlier that Moscow was in contact with Washington to discuss an atmosphere he described as alarming.
"Without the sanction of the UN Security Council, in breach of the UN charter and the norms and principles of global law, an act of aggression was committed against a sovereign state", the Kremlin said.
Any U.S. strike would probably involve the Navy.
US officials suspect the Russia-backed Assad regime is behind the attack.
British Prime Minister Theresa May won backing from her senior ministers on Thursday to take unspecified action with the United States and France to deter further use of chemical weapons by Syria.
The Kremlin on Saturday condemned Western air strikes on Syria where its armed forces are backing President Bashar al-Assad. A US guided-missile destroyer, the USS Donald Cook, is in the Mediterranean.