Another 4.3 million babies in the East Asia and Pacific region live in areas with pollution levels at least six times higher than the global recommendation.
Air pollution for long has been known to cause several ailments related to breathing and general health and according to the United Nations Children's Fund report titled "Danger In the Air" air pollution can also permanently damage a child's brain.
Seventeen million babies worldwide live in areas where air pollution runs six times the recommended limit, UNICEF reports.
Babies are also more susceptible to the effects of air pollution because they breathe more rapidly and their immune defenses are not fully developed.
The report highlighted links found between pollution and brain functions "including verbal and non-verbal IQ and memory, reduced test scores, grade point averages among school children, as well as other neurological behavioural problems".
Pollutants inhaled by pregnant women may pass through the placenta and disturb the development of the brain of the foetus.
The brains of developing children are especially vulnerable because they can be harmed by smaller doses of toxic chemicals compared to adults' brains, the report states.
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UNICEF warns that as more countries grow into modern, urban societies, governments have failed to provide "adequate protection and pollution reduction measures" to protect young children.
The World Health Organization recommends that the level of pollutants in the air not exceed 20 micrograms per cubic meter (.02 parts per million).
Air pollution is closely associated with asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis and other respiratory infections, it said.
The first and foremost step that each one of us should take is towards reducing air pollution as much as possible.
"A lot of focus goes on making sure children have good quality education, but also important is the development of the brain itself", he added.
It called for a greater use of masks, air filtration systems and for children to avoid travelling when pollution levels are at their highest.