"I'm a westerner, but also a very proud Muslim", Khan said.
Khan's remarks came as Trump renewed the travel restrictions on citizens of Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen from visiting the U.S., while also adding North Korea, Venezuela and Muslim-majority Chad to the list.
London's horror spate of terror attacks could have been much worse, London Mayor Sadiq Khan has said, revealing that police have foiled seven terror attacks in the British capital since March. During the USA presidential election campaign, Khan was among many people who spoke out against Trump's proposed ban on Muslims entering the United States, an idea he said would play into the hands of extremists.
In a further dig at Trump, Khan said he's so busy in his role at City Hall that he's "got no time to respond to tweets", and wondered whether the US President didn't have better things to do.
The mayor - who was initially denied a speech slot before a late change of plan - led a standing ovation for the emergency services for their response through "one of the darkest times in London's recent history" as he highlighted recent terrorist attacks and the Grenfell Tower fire.
Khan said Trump's travel ban gave the "wrong impression" of Islam and was meant to sow distrust between Muslims and non-Muslims.
When asked about his long-running feud with Trump, he hinted his rival's knowledge of the Islamic faith was limited to what he sees in the media.
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He added: "Sometimes people's views are ignorant".
"I think Sadiq Khan is doing a good job and it's wrong to say anything else - he's doing a good job", she said.
Khan subsequently urged the government to withdraw an invitation to host Trump for a state visit, a call he stands by nearly four months later. "We will not admit those into our country we can not safely vet", Trump said in a tweet.
Earlier, Mr Khan posed with Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn after a hard-left attempt to block the Mayor from speaking at conference failed.
In June, 6 people, including Ms Zelanak and Ms Boden were killed at Borough Market and on London Bridge when jihadists drove a a van into pedestrians and then carried out a frenzied stabbing attack in the markets.
British Prime Minister Theresa May invited the United States leader on a visit to be hosted by Queen Elizabeth II, during her visit to the White House in January.
The invitation caused huge controversy in Britain, but Downing Street has resisted pressure to withdraw it.