Azmoun's goal midway through the first half at the Azadi Stadium put them on track to qualify for a place in Russian Federation before Taremi added a second two minutes from time as Iran reached back-to-back World Cup tournaments for the first time.
This is the fifth qualification to the global finals for Iran, having previously appeared at football's showpiece event in 1978, 1998, 2006 and 2014.
Team Melli's victory on Monday not only guaranteed their safe passage to the 2018 World Cup, but ensured they did so in style with two Group Stage matches to spare.
But Taremi calmed Iran's nerves when he added the second goal late on by curling a low shot into the corner of Lobanov's goal to spark celebrations amongst the home supporters.
South Korea is in second place, a point ahead of Uzbekistan with a game in hand.
As has been the case throughout the campaign, Queiroz's team stifled their opposition, giving little away in front of goal as they continued a remarkable streak of not conceding in qualifying that stretches back all the way to November 2015.
Vice-president Eshaq Jahangiri was present at the stadium for the game, among the nearly 60,000 supporters celebrating when the referee blew full-time.
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"Hereby, I commend managers, coaches, players and the noble Iranian nation on the great accomplishment and wish success of young people of the country in all worldwide arenas", he concluded.
Thousands of Iranians spilled onto the streets after the match with impromptu street parties in Tehran and across the country as people danced, waved flags and honked auto horns.
Brazil was the first team to qualify for next year's World Cup in Russian Federation.
He said he hopes Iran will retain Queiroz has head coach even after the World Cup.
Asian Football Confederation president Sheikh Salman bin Ebrahim Al Khalifa praised the consistency of the Iran team.
The top two teams in both Asian groups will qualify automatically for Russian Federation, and the two third-place teams going into a series of playoffs for another spot.